The development status of new type of textile fiber

All countries in the world the development of new materials as one of the most important aspects of the economic development, promoting technology progress, all kinds of new type textile fiber as an important material in today's high technology fields, is known as a pillar of economic development in the 21st century.New type textile fiber development depends on the level of the polymer science, and in the low level of the current polymer science development, resulting in many high performance materials, high value-added products to import.Such as surgical suture, the production of high-performance artificial blood vessels, are almost blank in our country.Therefore scientific research workers should focus on the development of various high performance polymer materials, thus promote the development and application of new textile fiber.

High functional fiber

Can mainly refers to the functional fiber with high transmission light, electricity, ultrafiltration, dialysis and reverse osmosis and adsorption, ion exchange and so on special function of the fiber, also includes providing comfort, health, safety, etc, the special function and is suitable for the fiber under the condition of special applications.Mainly include optical fiber, glass fiber, biodegradable fiber, ceramic fiber(etc ceramic fiber blanket), conductive fiber, hollow fiber membrane, antibacterial fiber, radiation protection, high temperature resistant fibers such as functional fibers.

1. Optical fiber or transmission optical fiber optical fiber, also known as light fiber, optical fiber.It is to use two different refractive index of transparent material through special composite technology made of composite fiber.Fiber optic light spread like can like deliver current, make the light beam or image optical fiber bundle along the winding, the light conductor, from one end to the other side.Optical fiber is a kind of skin-core structure, of low refractive index of thin film to wrap around and transparent core material, according to the type of the core material to optical fiber is divided into three categories: quartz optical fiber, multicomponent fiber and plastic optical fiber.Quartz optical fiber loss rate is low, only 1 db/km, it is often used for long distance transmission, such as public long distance phone lines, its price is high, the brittle and difficult to processing;Multicomponent optical fiber used in 1 ~ 2 km distance transmission, such as the enterprise internal LAN and fiber lens;Plastic optical fiber attrition rate is as high as 120 ~ 130 db/km, but its advantage is cheap, flexible, lightweight and easy processing, and therefore is widely used for short distance optical circuit.

2.Ceramic fiber is a kind of inorganic fire-resistant fiber, refers to the ceramic material made of infiltration into the fiber polymer blending and fiber.Ceramic fiber range is very wide, including by metal oxide, carbide, nitride, alumina, aluminum silicate, silicon carbide, boron nitride, potassium titanate fibers made of raw materials.Fiber matrix can be polyester, polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene fiber amine, etc., according to the different USES can choose different ceramics.Ceramic fiber with high temperature resistance, corrosion resistance, high strength, high modulus, heat conduction coefficient is small, the advantages of thermal shock resistant, low thermal capacity, is now widely used in metallurgy, chemical industry, building materials, aerospace, automobile and other fire-resistant, heat insulation, fire prevention, high temperature filtration and labor protection and other fields.

3. The main components of the glass fiber glass fiber for silica and other metal oxides, under the molten state by spinning.The abundant raw materials, manufacturing technology of glass fibre maturity, low price, is nonflammable, corrosion resistant, heat resistant, high strength, insulation performance is good wait for an advantage, widely used in industry.

4. Biodegradable fiber biodegradable fiber refers to under the sunlight and the role of microorganisms in nature can break down the fiber.Natural fiber itself is biodegradable, and synthetic fibers has properties of fast does not rot, so synthetic fiber waste is causing serious environmental pollution problems, biodegradable synthetic fiber is the key of the chemical fiber biodegradable properties improved.The multi-purpose in chitin fiber and chitosan fiber medical material is one of them.They are using chitin or chitosan solution spinning of fibre, chitin is extracted from the shell of shrimp and crabs, insects, the natural biopolymer, chitosan is chitin after concentrated alkali treatment off acetyl products.Chitin and chitosan fiber not only has excellent physical and mechanical properties, and it has good biological activity.The fiber is non-toxic, has can be lysozyme degradation in the human body and absorbed by human body completely biodegradable, they can be used for surgical suture and medical gauze, non-woven fabric or film such as wound dressing.Another kind of biodegradable fibers is poly lactic acid fiber.Polylactic acid is a product of fermented milk, its melting point in more than 180 degrees, can by melt spinning processing into silk, ZhiZhi textiles have a silk luster and dry touch, is a good clothing material, it in water or soil under the action of microorganisms, can all normal decomposition in a year.

5. Hollow fiber membrane hollow fiber membrane is a kind of functional fibers, the substrate eyes with viscose fiber, polypropylene fiber, polyester fiber, etc., according to the characters of the aperture can be divided into microfiltration membrane, ultrafiltration membrane, reverse osmosis membrane, gas separation and ion exchange membranes.Using hollow fiber membrane made of textile technology to assemble into blood plasma separator and a variety of filters, blood dialyzer, purifier, used in pure water preparation, liquid production, wastewater treatment, water desalination, etc.

6. The conductive fiber conductive fiber refers to the state standard (20 ° C and 65% relative humidity), mass ratio of resistance for the fiber under 1081 Ω · g/cm2.The conductive principle lies in the fiber contains free electrons, no humidity dependence, even in low humidity conditions will not change the electrical conductivity.Eliminate and prevent electrostatic properties of conductive fiber is far higher than that of antistatic fibre.The first conductive fiber is made using the electrical conductivity of metals and metal kind of conductive fiber, conductive performance of this kind of fiber, good heat resistance, chemical corrosion resistance, but manufacturing difficulties;In addition with metal spraying method to make the fiber as the electrical conductivity of the metal;The conductive fiber is by adsorption or chemical reaction method to add some metal compounds into the fiber and made great conductivity of conductive fiber.Conductive fiber antistatic fabric is often used to make, can effectively prevent the local accumulation of static electricity, made of conductive fiber products can be used for production of flameproof overalls, dust-proof overalls, anti-static blankets, etc.

7. Other functional fiber at present and many of the functional fiber, including the flame retardant fiber, the fiber is adding flame retardant polymer of spinning;Optical fiber has a light color performance, fluorescence fiber, cause the color fiber, hot and humid discoloration, etc.;There are magnetic fiber, far infrared fiber, ultraviolet resistant fiber, negative ion fiber, antibacterial fibers, ion exchange fiber and other functional fibers.

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Последние Новости

Российский актер и музыкант Гоша Куценко стал очередной знаменитостью, которую наказали за мат. И сделало это общественное движение "Типун", борющееся с употреблением нецензурной лексики среди публичных персон.

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